CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECT AND THESIS HELP
MAJOR TOPICS OF PROJECTS AND THESIS
BRIDGE VIBRATION ANALYSIS
Most bridges are designed using a static analysis, adjusted by a dynamic amplification factor which is a function of the first flexural frequency. This method is imprecise but continues to be used, partly because of the apparently complex processes required to estimate accurately and to provide for the levels of vibration in a bridge. This paper investigates the natural frequencies and associated mode shapes of bridge superstructures. It compares field observations with theoretical idealizations and finds that, while a single beam idealization is accurate for straight, nonskewed bridges and for some continuous superstructures, many other bridges require an eigenvalue analysis of a finite beam element grillage. A simplified method for estimating the natural frequency of vibration is developed. An application of the Rayleigh method to a grillage model of the bridge, it is quick to apply and accurate to within 10%. The paper also compares the effects of using the static and dynamic moduli of elasticity of concrete in estimating the natural frequency of vibration, and concludes that the dynamic modulus is more appropriate. Finally, it debates the significance of certain types of support stiffness in estimating the fundamental frequency, and finds that their effect is negligible.
RC SLAB DESIGN
RC Slab: RC Slab stands for a horizontal structural component of steel reinforced concrete. Generally, the thickness of RC slab varies from 100mm to 500mm. RC Slabs are frequently applied as floorings, ceilings etc. Slabs are supported on two sides only or contain beams on all four sides.
An RC slab alias Reinforced Cement slab is found in buildings and in bridge construction. The reinforcement is provided with steel bars which are arranged with some distances according to design and based on the load the slab has to undergo.
COMPOSITES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
A Composite is a multiphase material formed from a combination of two or more materials that differ in composition or form, which are bonded together, but retaining their identities and properties. The outcome of this “composition” is that the newly formed material has superior properties over the individual components.A good example of such a material is FRP or Fibreglass Reinforced Polymer, a very common composite, used for a multitude of applications, ranging from space and aeronautics to boating and cars.
Composite Engineering, which basically consists of the use of Composite materials in Engineering, is slowly but surely making inroads into the Civil Engineering field. Despite the fact that Composites are generally more expensive in comparison to traditional construction materials, and therefore not as widely used in many constructive and building activities, they have the advantage of being lightweight, more corrosion resistant and stronger. The fibre reinforcements provide good damping characteristics and high resistance to fatigue.
APPLICATION OF TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Over the years, several optimization techniques were widely used to find the optimum shape and size of engineering structures (trusses, frames, etc.) under different constraints (stress, displacement, buckling instability, kinematic stability, and natural frequency). But, most of them require continuous data set where, on the other hand, topology optimization (TO) can handle also discrete ones. Topology optimization has also allowed radical changes in geometry which concludes better designs. So, many researchers have studied on topology optimization by developing/using different methodologies. This study aims to classify these studies considering used methods and present new emerging application areas. It is believed that researchers will easily find the related studies with their work.
APPLICATION OF RESPONSE SURFACE OPTIMIZATION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
esponse surface methodology (RSM) is a powerful tool in designing the experiments and optimizing different environmental processes. However, when it comes to wastewater treatment and specifically dye-containing wastewater, two questions arise; “Is RSM being used correctly?” and “Are all capabilities of RSM being exploited properly?”. The current review paper aims to answer these questions by scrutinizing different physicochemical processes that utilized RSM in dye removal. The literature that applied RSM to adsorption, advanced oxidation processes, coagulation/flocculation and electrocoagulation processes were critically reviewed in this paper. The common errors in applying RSM to physicochemical removal of dyes are identified and some suggestions are made for future studies.
STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF CIVIL STRUCTURES DUE TO WIND FLOW
In some areas, wind load is an important consideration when designing and building a barn or other structure. Wind load is the load, in pounds per square foot, placed on the exterior of a structure by wind. This will depend on:
- The angle at which the wind strikes the structure
- The shape of the structure (height, width, etc.)
Preventing wind damage involves strengthening areas where buildings could come apart. The walls, roof and foundation must be strong, and the attachments between them must be strong and secure. For a structure to resist hurricane and weak tornadic winds, it must have a continuous load path from the roof to the foundation — connections that tie all structural parts together and can resist types of wind loads that could push and pull on the building in a storm. Depending on the location, a typical “wind load” is 80 mph or 16 lb/ft2.
Wind exerts three types of forces on a structure:
- Uplift load – Wind flow pressures that create a strong lifting effect, much like the effect on airplane wings. Wind flow under a roof pushes upward; wind flow over a roof pulls upward.
- Shear load – Horizontal wind pressure that could cause racking of walls, making a building tilt.
- Lateral load – Horizontal pushing and pulling pressure on walls that could make a structure slide off the foundation or overturn.